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What are some key characteristics and properties of brown dwarfs?

    Brown dwarfs have unique characteristics and properties that distinguish them from both planets and stars. Here are some key features:

    1. Mass: Brown dwarfs have a mass range between 13 and 80 times that of Jupiter, making them more massive than planets but less massive than stars.

    2. Size: They are typically about the size of Jupiter, although some can be larger or smaller.

    3. Temperature: Brown dwarfs have relatively cool surface temperatures ranging from about 2500 to 3000 Kelvin (K), which is much cooler than normal stars.

    4. Emission: They emit faint light due to residual heat from their formation. This emission is primarily in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    5. Nuclear fusion: Unlike stars, brown dwarfs do not have enough mass to sustain nuclear fusion in their cores. Fusion reactions, which generate energy in stars, do not occur in brown dwarfs.

    6. Atmosphere: Brown dwarfs have complex atmospheres, containing molecules such as water vapor, methane, and ammonia. These molecules give their atmospheres a reddish-brown tint.

    7. Age: Brown dwarfs can have ages ranging from a few million to billions of years, depending on their formation process.

    8. Magnetic activity: Some brown dwarfs exhibit strong magnetic fields, which can lead to the formation of spots and auroras on their surfaces.

    Understanding the characteristics and properties of brown dwarfs provides valuable insights into the formation and evolution of celestial objects with intermediate masses between planets and stars.


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